A. Study objective/purpose
1. Is the purpose of the study clearly stated?
II. Methodology/Study Design
1. Is it a clinical trial, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, or case-series?
1. What are the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of subjects?
2. What limitations result?
C. Treatment allocation
1. How are subjects chosen or recruited? Randomly?
2. If not:
a. Are they representative of the population?
b. How were patients selected for the study to avoid bias?
c. If historical controls were used, were methods and criteria
the same for the experimental group, and were cases and
controls compared on prognostic factors?
many are there? Were the circumstances for patients dropping out explained by the authors?
used in the study?
D. Outcome measures
1. Are there multiple endpoints?
2. Are subgroup analyses performed and, if so, reported
on power are especially critical in a negative study).
relevant outcomes reported?
not just the results of statistical tests?
IV. Study Discussion/Students’ Conclusions
results from the study?
suggestions given for the future research?
1. Do the authors extrapolate beyond the data?
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